#BringYourDogToWorkDay - Apparently it's Bring Your Dog to Work Day. I always try to avoid those people.



I've got two dogs and I while I like them, that's not to say I'm going to like yours.
And I'm not going to bring them to work with me on Bring Your Dog to Work Day because frankly, I respect the fact that you might not like big dogs.  Or the breed of dogs I have (Golden Retriever mix  and another rescue mix).
Or you might have allergies to them, or a fear of dogs.
I respect that.

Because I really don't want to see your dog in the office either.

Especially if you have a little yappy dog.
Or a poodle.
O really, almost any dog under 60 pounds and as tall as my thigh.
I really don't like dogs that have little bows and crap in their fur or heaven forbid are dressed in little outfits.
Gag.
They are animals.  They do not want to wear clothes like humans... but try telling some people that and they can't comprehend.
I don't like little dogs unless they are that size because they are a puppy.

But to play nice at the office you have to pretend to like their damn dogs.
When they let them run up to your desk and they are beaming with doggy-pride, it's kind of like seeing your co-worker bring in their newborn for an office visit.  They expect everyone to ooo and ahhh over the baby and tell them how 'cute' it is.  Even if it's one of the ugliest newborns you've seen.  If you are like me and don't like to lie, you comment on how cute the outfit the baby is wearing, or how he has daddy's nose or maybe what a sweet little adorable hand the baby has.  (Because actually babies really do have adorable little hands and feetsies....).

And people kind of expect you to love their dogs as much as they do.
Gah.

Having to play nice with office politics in the event they bring their stupid little yappy dogs into my office I would usually bend down and do a quick look and "Oh.... you brought your dog in today!"  (Avoiding lying to say it's cute if it's not).  Sometimes if it was rather cute or was a puppy I might pet it and smile and make a comment of some positive nature.  Then, mention how busy you are and that you have to get back to work!

If you absolutely can't stand the dog (or the co-worker) you can always put your hand up to your face and say "Oh no!  I have allergies. Sorry."  And smile politely.   Because really, if you have an allergy to pollen, grass, cats, dust or well, anything;  it's covered with that comment without lying.  You didn't say you have an allergy to their dog... you just said you have allergies!

And if you have a really really 'good' nose like I do, you can smell a dog 10 feet away.  Even if you don't think your dog stinks.  Even if it JUST came from the groomers.  I can smell your dog.  And I don't want that smell on my hands if I am forced by politeness to pet your dog.  Because then I smell your dog on my hands.  And I have to go wash them with scenty soap to remove it.  Yes... I really can smell your dog.  And I think your dog stinks.

(My dogs smell like dogs too.  But they are at home.  Not at the office.)








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In 2016 I started to notice a trend in coffee... a 'fad' might be a better description actually.  Companies started to like adding 'things' to their coffee.

Remember when everyone was adding a dollop of butter to their coffee for the health benefits?  Then in spring of 2017 it was coconut oil.  Now, the next big thing (which as been around awhile... but it's just catching on big right now) is vitamins.








I started to see vitamin infused coffee k-cup style pods being talked about on the net so I went over to Amazon to see if they were available.  There are a few brands currently on the market but I decided to read more about the VitaCup brand because their reviews and ratings were very, very good.  They were almost consistently getting 5 out of 5 stars.
 
About the product (from their product listing)
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For those who want to use their own brand of coffee or their own k-cups or even ground coffee in your own coffee pot, they also offer little energy powder packets.  These come in flavored but also FLAVORLESS (which I love they offer this because I don't like flavored coffee).  The reviews are again, overwhelmingly positive.

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About the product
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The reviewers like that the powder is very fine, it doesn't clump up like other brands and they notice an increase in energy without getting caffeine shakes.





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PART SIX - And final installment in the Oneida Community Series - A closer look at the doctrines


This is part six - the final even though my previous post talked about the decline of the community, the leader escaping arrest for statutory rape by heading to Canada and the community disbanding in part and dividing up their 'joint stock' and becoming the Oneida brand silverware we know today.

However - I want to go back and talk about some of their doctrines for a minute.  One of them is very familiar to the Warren Jeff's FLDS compound - and how Mormons under Joseph Smith operated until the government made the Mormons stop practicing polygamy and of course we all know the fall out of the Fundamentalist Latter Day Saints mess of Mr. Jeffs.   (One random link here describes his penchant not just for 'many' bedmates he called wives - but young ones.)

_____________________________


While studying at Yale, Noyes had formulated a ‘Perfectionist creed’ that postulated that the Second Coming of Christ had already transpired so Christians were actually living in the era of fulfillment and not the age of prophecy.

For the past decade, religious revivals had been sweeping the country and warning of the Second Coming of Christ.

Get your house in order for the hereafter - was what the revivalists preached. Noyes had a different take.

Men and women could sleep with multiple partners now - just no ejaculation - and sinlessness could be achieved in the here and now.

Yale Department of Theology viewed these sermons as heretical and tossed Noyes out of the seminary.

So where else to go but New York City, where he bounced around for three weeks in ‘the moral cesspit of Manhattan, the ground zero of sexual temptation’, having the most delicious out-of body fantasy of having sex with the godhead.

The experience was so intense that it convinced him he had the skills to become god’s prophet on earth. It was ‘an ingenious fantasy of sex’ where there was no expulsion from Eden. He indulged in his strongest sexual urges with no shame or sorrow.

His brother, Horatio, viewed him as ‘a downright madman’.

‘A hallucinating vagabond prophet in the bowels of New York City’, Noyes escaped to his family’s home in rural Putney, Vermont, in 1834 where he began work on his Perfectionist movement newspaper.

He returned to New Haven to work with a colleague from the Free Church on the first edition of The Perfectionist, a paper that disseminated his ideas on ‘Perfectionism’.

Learning about the sexual experimentation among New York Perfectionists, Noyes decided to adopt it for his own New Haven Perfectionist group.

While in Putney and still a virgin, he was told he had lost the girl he was so attracted to in New Haven. She was now engaged to another man.

He wrote her and told her he had no intention of interfering with her ‘earthly engagement’ because that was simply an earthly dream.

He believed that by the word of God, she was given to him. He would have her in the hereafter - except he really wanted her in the flesh so he packed up and moved to where she now lived with her new husband in Ithaca, NY.

She coldly ignored him and his next thought was ‘invent a system in which exclusiveness was banned and all were wed to all’. There was no sexual rivalry in this dreamed up concept.

______________________

Noyes became the hub of a group of men and women, eventually numbering about 300, who saw monogamy as impure and group love as the means of ushering in the millennium. They thought God demanded variety in every facet of life, including sex. To overcome what they regarded as the sin of monogamy, they called for the continual change of partners under the supervision of Noyes. 

Noyes took advantage of his position as sexual arbiter. Although he was married, his main gratification came from elsewhere. He indoctrinated his followers with the idea of "ascending fellowship," whereby community elders, considered especially godly, led younger believers heavenward by introducing them to what they saw as the holy pleasures of sex. Shortly after puberty, boys and girls were assigned a succession of older love partners. Teen-agers commonly slept with people in their 50's or 60's, though they got to choose partners their own age as time passed. Mr. Klaw cites sources that suggest Noyes often assigned himself 12- and 13-year-old girls. 

All the men at Oneida were thought to be linked in divine marriage to all the women. Many community members had two or three different partners a week. To avoid unwanted pregnancies and to insure maximum pleasure for women, the Oneidans practiced coitus reservatus, or, as Noyes called it, male continence -- intercourse without ejaculation. Couples who drifted toward "idolatrous" (that is, monogamous) love or who broke the rule of male continence were chastised publicly at group discussion meetings. Child rearing was also a group matter. Couples could request to have a child, but children lived in separate quarters, apart from their parents, and were raised communally. 

Mr. Klaw judiciously sorts out the rewards and the anxieties of these unusual living arrangements. Parents and children sometimes felt the strain of being separated from one another. He gives the affecting example of a mother who in her rare moments alone with her son asked, "Darling, do you love me?" The son recalled later: "I always melted. My marbles and blocks were forgotten. I would reach up and put my arms about her neck. I remember how tightly she held me and how long, as though she would never let me go." 

Possessiveness and jealousy inevitably arose among competing sex partners. The problems surrounding complex marriage contributed to the community's demise. Young people, in particular, grew tired of being assigned older lovers they often found undesirable. "I wish," one woman lamented, "it were more popular than it is for the young to love the old, the handsome to love the less so, the educated the less educated, in short, that love might be truly free, permeating and pervading all hearts." 

As Mr. Klaw points out, the surprising thing is not that Oneida failed but that it lasted as long as it did.

________________________

The community believed that Jesus had already returned in AD 70, making it possible for them to bring about Jesus’s millennial kingdom themselves, and be free of sin and perfect in this world, not just Heaven (a belief called Perfectionism). The Oneida Community practiced Communalism (in the sense of communal property and possessions), Complex Marriage, Male Continence, Mutual Criticism and Ascending Fellowship. There were smaller Noyesian communities in Wallingford, Connecticut; Newark, New Jersey; Putney and Cambridge, Vermont. The community’s original 87 members grew to 172 by February 1850, 208 by 1852, and 306 by 1878. The branches were closed in 1854 except for the Wallingford branch, which operated until devastated by a tornado in 1878. The Oneida Community dissolved in 1881, and eventually became the giant silverware company Oneida Limited.

Even though the community reached a maximum population of about 300, it had a complex bureaucracy of 27 standing committees and 48 administrative sections.

The manufacturing of silverware, the sole remaining industry, began in 1877, relatively late in the life of the Community, and still exists. Secondary industries included the manufacture of leather travel bags, the weaving of palm frond hats, the construction of rustic garden furniture, game traps, and tourism.

All Community members were expected to work, each according to his or her abilities. Women tended to do much of the domestic duties. Although more skilled jobs tended to remain with an individual member (the financial manager, for example, held his post throughout the life of the Community), Community members rotated through the more unskilled jobs, working in the house, the fields, or the various industries. As Oneida thrived, it began to hire outsiders to work in these positions as well. They were a major employer in the area, with approximately 200 employees by 1870.

Complex Marriage

The Oneida community believed strongly in a system of free love known as complex marriage, where any member was free to have sex with any other who consented. Possessiveness and exclusive relationships were frowned upon. Unlike 20th century social movements, the Oneidans did not seek consequence-free sex for pleasure, but believed that, because the natural outcome of intercourse was pregnancy, raising children should be a communal responsibility. Women over the age of 40 were to act as sexual “mentors” to adolescent boys, as these relationships had minimal chance of conceiving. Furthermore, these women became religious role models for the young men. Likewise, older men often introduced young women to sex. Noyes often used his own judgment in determining the partnerships that would form, and would often encourage relationships between the non-devout and the devout in the community, in the hopes that the attitudes and behaviors of the devout would influence the non-devout.

Mutual Criticism

Every member of the community was subject to criticism by committee or the community as a whole, during a general meeting. The goal was to eliminate undesirable character traits. Various contemporary sources contend that Noyes himself was the subject of criticism, although less often and of probably less severe criticism than the rest of the community. Charles Nordhoff witnessed the following criticism of member “Charles:”

Charles sat speechless, looking before him; but as the accusations multiplied, his face grew paler, and drops of perspiration began to stand on his forehead. The remarks I have reported took up about half an hour; and now, each one in the circle having spoken, Mr. Noyes summed up. He said that Charles had some serious faults; that he had watched him with some care; and that he thought the young man was earnestly trying to cure himself. He spoke in general praise of his ability, his good character, and of certain temptations he had resisted in the course of his life. He thought he saw signs that Charles was making a real and earnest attempt to conquer his faults; and as one evidence of this he remarked that Charles had lately come to him to consult him upon a difficult case in which he had had a severe struggle, but had in the end succeeded in doing right. “In the course of what we call stirpiculture,” said Noyes, “Charles, as you know, is in the situation of one who is by and by to become a father. Under these circumstances, he has fallen under the too common temptation of selfish love, and a desire to wait upon and cultivate an exclusive intimacy with the woman who was to bear a child through him. This is an insidious temptation, very apt to attack people under such circumstances; but it must nevertheless be struggled against.” Charles, he went on to say, had come to him for advice in this case, and he (Noyes) had at first refused to tell him any thing, but had asked him what he thought he ought to do; that after some conversation, Charles had determined, and he agreed with him, that he ought to isolate himself entirely from the woman, and let another man take his place at her side; and this Charles had accordingly done, with a most praiseworthy spirit of self-sacrifice. Charles had indeed still further taken up his cross, as he had noticed with pleasure, by going to sleep with the smaller children, to take charge of them during the night. Taking all this in view, he thought Charles was in a fair way to become a better man, and had manifested a sincere desire to improve, and to rid himself of all selfish faults.



As stated earlier, Noyes' teachings were practiced here by the community. The main teaching which received the most criticism was that of "Complex Marriage." In Complex Marriage, every man was married to every woman and vice versa. This practice was to stay only within the community and had to stay within two main guidelines. The first was that before the man and woman could cohabit, they had to obtain each other's consent through a third person or persons. Secondly, no two people could have exclusive attachment with each other because it would be selfish and idolatrous. Any two people found in any such situation would be separated and not allowed to see each other for a certain length of time.


Another teaching practiced at the Oneida Community was that of "Male Continence," which was a type of birth control. In the practice of Male Continence, "a couple would engage in sexual congress without the man ever ejaculating, either during intercourse or after withdrawal." Noyes justified this practice because his wife Harriet in the first six years of their marriage had five difficult childbirths, four of which were premature and resulted in the deaths of the children. Noyes came to the conclusion that where an unwanted pregnancy occurred, there was a waste of the man's seed and that it was no different in practice to masturbation. With the implementation of Male Continence, which lasted from 1848 to 1868, some forty children were born in the community of about two hundred and fifty people.

Another teaching practiced along these same lines was that of "Ascending Fellowship." Ascending Fellowship was set up to properly introduce the virgins into Complex Marriage. This practice also worked to prevent the young members from falling in love with each other and from limiting their range of affection to just the younger members. The main people picked to care for the virgins were people who were considered to be closer to God. These people were of course older and had a special title which was that of Central Member. These Central Members were allowed their pick of a partner over which they would have the responsibility of spiritual guidance. It usually worked that the male Central Member would pick any female virgin of his choice. Due to her lower order, she was compelled to accept. In the case of the female Central Member, they were usually past the age of menopause, and when they chose their male virgin, they were obligated to honor the request. The reason women past menopause were chosen was so that as they taught the younger men Male Continence, they would not have to worry about unwanted pregnancies.

The forth major teaching practiced was that of "Mutual Criticism." Mutual Criticism was established to assure the integrity of the community by conformity to Noyes' morality. The way in which Mutual Criticism worked was that a member, under communal control, was subjected to criticisms of either a committee or the whole community. The criticisms were usually directed toward the "member's bad traits (those thoughts or acts that detracted from family unity), and an individual could be put through a shameful, humiliating experience." Only Noyes himself would not go through this unless he decided to, because he felt that a group should not criticize their leader.

_________________________

In 1849, a small branch community started at Brooklyn, and others followed" at Wallingford, Newark, Putney, Cambridge, and Manlius. But in 1855, some of these communities were abandoned so that a concentration of members would take place at Oneida and Wallingford." By this time, "relative tranquility had been achieved and almost all the theories and practices that would make Oneida one of the most distinctive of all American ventures in religious and social reorganization had been at least provisionally established."

Within the commune, there was a debate about when children should be initiated into sex, and by whom. There was also much debate about its practices as a whole. The founding members were aging or deceased, and many of the younger communitarians desired to enter into exclusive, traditional marriages.

The capstone to all these pressures was the harassment campaign of Professor John Mears of Hamilton College. He called for a protest meeting against the Oneida Community; it was attended by forty-seven clergymen. John Humphrey Noyes was informed by trusted adviser Myron Kinsley that a warrant for his arrest on charges of statutory rape was imminent. Noyes fled the Oneida Community Mansion House and the country in the middle of a June night in 1879, never to return to the United States. Shortly afterward, he wrote to his followers from Niagara Falls, Ontario, recommending that the practice of complex marriage be abandoned.

Complex marriage was abandoned in 1879 following external pressures and the community soon broke apart, with some of the members reorganizing as a joint-stock company. Marital partners normalized their status with the partners with whom they were cohabiting at the time of the re-organization. Over 70 Community members entered into a traditional marriage in the following year.

_______________________

Noyes was the father of ten of the sixty-two Community children born in a ten-year period from 1869 to 1879.

An additional nineteen were blood relatives and fifty per cent of the newest generation had Noyes blood coursing through their veins.

Noyes complex theological and social systems guaranteed Noyes could have sex with as many ‘spiritual’ wives as he chose. His peculiar psychosexual needs were met.

But it was all over in 1879. Times had dramatically changed in defense of marriage and the New York Committee for the suppression of vice was hearing testimony that the Oneidans were worse than the polygamists of Utah.

For forty years, Noyes flourished at the center of what he believed was his divine commission of transforming the world into a kingdom of love on earth.

On the morning of June 22, 1879, word reached Noyes that he was about to be arrested for statutory rape.

He fled the Mansion House, the 93,000 square foot grand Victorian estate and communal home and escaped over the border and into Canada - never to return to the United States.





Sources for further reading:

http://www.nyhistory.com/central/oneida.htm
http://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/religious/the-oneida-community-1848-1880-a-utopian-community/
https://library.syr.edu/digital/guides/o/OneidaCommunityCollection/hsr1.htm
http://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/24/books/complex-marriage-to-say-the-least.html
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3581008/Inside-John-Humphrey-Noyes-19th-Century-Oneida-NY-commune-people-believed-sleeping-ultimate-medicine.html



PART FIVE - the Oneida Community Series - How it went from a cult like utopian community to the maker of silverware we know today

This is part five of the series on the Oneida Community Series.
Sources from the excerpts are below if you wish to read in its entirety.

The Decline.
How it went from a cult like utopian community to the maker of silverware we know today.


There began a disintegration of the Community at Oneida around 1874. Although the Community continued to prosper economically, as an organization it was showing signs of internal strife at the same time the local clergy was renewing its crusade to bring down Mr. Noyes and the Community by condemning its social institutions.
In 1875, John Humphrey Noyes was sixty-four years old. He was devoting more of his time to writing, was less actively involved in the day to day running of Community affairs, and was growing increasingly deaf. The question of his successor was a serious matter and one not easily resolved.

The Community had been experiencing the first signs of internal dissent as the younger generation came of age and began taking leadership roles in the various committees and departments. Several of the young men had been sent off to college. Some of them returned to the community excited with the new ideas of Scientific Positivism and business strategies. In general, the younger generation held less strong religious convictions than the original joiners of the Community. The result was that although they had grown up as firm believers in Christ and the Bible, they had no real faith in communism. And as a class, the younger women and men desired more monogamous relations.
In 1877, John Humphrey Noyes addressed the Community on the question of his successor:
    In this last stage of my labor I find myself in front of the last problem of Community-building, which is the problem of successorship; how to carry a Community through the change from one generation to another. I must work out this problem, or leave my work unfinished and even in danger of coming to naught. The Community did not form itself by getting together and choosing a president. I was the president from the beginning, called not by vote of the members but by the will of God.13
John Humphrey's first born son, Theodore, was expected to follow in his father's place. However, a trial seven-month period as leader of the Community, proved Theodore was unsuccessful at guiding Community affairs, especially in religious matters. At the same time the Community was trying to solve its internal problems, the external world was applying pressure in an attempt to sway public opinion against the Perfectionist society. The local clergy, led by a Professor Mears of nearby Hamilton College, enlisted the help of the Presbyterian Synod to lead an attack against the Oneida Perfectionists as an institution "subversive to the family�and in opposition to Christian morality". Previous attempts over the years by Professor Mears and others to discredit the Oneida Community had faded in light of the Community's good business record and general good will and hospitality.

The charges brought against Mr. Noyes in 1879 were more severe and he was forced to retreat or risk the future of the Community. In June, 1879, Noyes left Oneida for Niagara Falls, Canada where the Community was in the process of moving its tableware business from the Wallingford, Connecticut branch. Under John Humphrey's guidance, the members at Oneida set up a new Administrative Council. Consisting of ten men and nine women, the Council was to serve as a spiritual and disciplinary body to conduct the domestic and social affairs of the Community.

By August of 1879 the community announced its abandonment of Complex Marriage and couples began to marry in the conventional manner.

The following year was a tumultuous one as factions developed around various proposed ideas for reorganization. A commission was formed to propose a "Joint Stock" plan to decide how to divide the community's property among the members. The "Agreement to Divide and Reorganize" was adopted in November, 1880. The Community was reorganized as a "limited liability" company and assumed the name "Oneida Community, Limited". The stock was divided among the members in the proportion of the number of years' service which each individual had contributed to creating the wealth of the Community. Specific provisions were made for children, the elderly, and the invalid. It also offered the guarantee of support for life to those who preferred it to the ownership of stock.

Many of the former Community members remained in the Mansion House buildings living much as conventional families did. They continued to enjoy the advantages of communal food preparation and dining as well as the social comforts and mutual respect from many years of living together.

The trap and fruit preserve business continued into the first quarter of the twentieth Century when they concentrated all efforts on the silverware industry. In 1940, they joined the stock exchange and dropped the "Community" name to become simply "Oneida Limited".

Oneida Limited is a well recognized name in today's market. It has long enjoyed a reputation as a prominent manufacturer of fine silver and stainless tableware in both domestic and foreign markets and as a successful profit-sharing enterprise.

Decline
The community lasted until John Humphrey Noyes attempted to pass the leadership thereof to his son, Theodore Noyes. This move was unsuccessful because Theodore was an agnostic and lacked his father’s talent for leadership. The move also divided the community, as Communitarian John Towner attempted to wrest control for himself.
Within the commune, there was a debate about when children should be initiated into sex, and by whom. There was also much debate about its practices as a whole. The founding members were aging or deceased, and many of the younger communitarians desired to enter into exclusive, traditional marriages.

The capstone to all these pressures was the harassment campaign of Professor John Mears of Hamilton College. He called for a protest meeting against the Oneida Community; it was attended by forty-seven clergymen. John Humphrey Noyes was informed by trusted adviser Myron Kinsley that a warrant for his arrest on charges of statutory rape was imminent. Noyes fled the Oneida Community Mansion House and the country in the middle of a June night in 1879, never to return to the United States. Shortly afterward, he wrote to his followers from Niagara Falls, Ontario, recommending that the practice of complex marriage be abandoned.

Complex marriage was abandoned in 1879 following external pressures and the community soon broke apart, with some of the members reorganizing as a joint-stock company. Marital partners normalized their status with the partners with whom they were cohabiting at the time of the re-organization. Over 70 Community members entered into a traditional marriage in the following year.

During the early 20th century, the new company, Oneida Community Limited, narrowed their focus to silverware. The animal trap business was sold in 1912, the silk business in 1916, and the canning discontinued as unprofitable in 1915.

The joint-stock corporation still exists and is a major producer of cutlery under the brand name “Oneida Limited”. In September 2004 Oneida Limited announced that it would cease all U.S. manufacturing operations in the beginning of 2005, ending a 124-year tradition. The company continues to design and market products that are manufactured overseas. The company has been selling off its manufacturing facilities. Most recently, the distribution center in Sherrill, New York was closed. Administrative offices remain in the Oneida area.

The last original member of the community, Ella Florence Underwood (1850–1950), died on June 25, 1950 in Kenwood, New York near Oneida, New York.






https://library.syr.edu/digital/guides/o/OneidaCommunityCollection/hsr1.htm
http://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/religious/the-oneida-community-1848-1880-a-utopian-community/










PART FOUR - the Oneida Community - a 'utopian community' sprung up in the mid 1880's


This is part four in a series I started to read about on my own, just for fun.  I love to research and love to read and have many hand written, filled notebooks and 3 ring binders simply for my own enjoyment.  Sometimes I choose to keep some of the information online on my site because it's easier for me to find at a moments notice and it sure beats hand writing or printing off all the information I find interesting and want to save!

So many parts of what John Humphrey Noyes was implementing into his utopian society are very similar to other movements starting up at the same time; mainly - Mormonism.  Reading through this, if you know anything about the history or doctrines of the Mormon cult, you may recognize it here as well.


PART FOUR - the beginning and the economics

In 1834, John Humphrey Noyes started developing the theories that would later become the foundation of truth in the Oneida Community. Over the next three years, John canvassed New York state and New England trying to make new converts with no avail. Finally, after a tough three-week period in New York City, he reached the verge of a complete mental and emotional breakdown. To top things off, his first and most faithful follower, Abigail Merwin, left him to marry another man.

Shortly after these events, Noyes started writing articles which were published in a new periodical called the "Battle- Axe". His first article was on the denunciation of the institution of marriage. Also, in September of this year (1837), part of a letter written by Noyes to a friend was anonymously published by the editor in the Battle-Axe. This letter stated that Noyes felt from his interpretation of a biblical prophecy, that he was clearly convinced he was God's agent on earth. This article did not bring as much outrage by the people as did a later article that outlined his beliefs on sexual relationships in the spiritual world and that would prevail in the millennial kingdom (Whitworth 95).

Through the writing of these articles, a woman by the name of Harriet Holton, the granddaughter of the Lieutenant-Governor of the state, became interested in Noyes and his work. She started to financially support him, and later, after Noyes realized that he would never get Abigail Merwin back, slowly came to the point where he realized that Harriet was filling the void that Abigail had left. In June of 1838, Noyes wrote Harriet a letter in which he proposed in a very careful way. He explained to her that their marriage would be a spiritual one, even though for that time period it would be a carnal or earthly marriage. But, he felt that the marriage would benefit both of them and that they, according to his teachings, would not selfishly possess one another.

One of his main reasons for getting married was that he felt the marriage would advance the work of God in which he was engaged. Also, it showed others who were criticizing him of his celibate state that he was not for celibacy, as were the Shakers. Noyes also said that, "By this marriage, besides herself, and a good social position, which she held as belonging to the first families of Vermont, I obtained money enough to buy a house and printing-office, and to buy a press and type." The press was then used to propagate Noyes' teachings through a publication called "The Witness," which he had to discontinue due to a lack of funds. So this marriage seems to have been based mainly on convenience.

After his marriage, Noyes then helped to arrange the marriages of his sisters to two of his closest followers, John L. Skinner and John R. Miller, who were students from his Bible institute which he had started in 1836 in Putney. He also gained the loyalty of his younger brother George and later, due to much pressure, his own mother who had been previously very upset by the way in which he had been using up the family estate to finance his religious endeavors. So at this point, John and George Noyes, Skinner, Miller, and a later addition of George Cragin became the center of an informal governing group of the movement.

Finally, in 1840, "the Putney Association came into being - as a purely religious body.". Then, in 1844, the group formally adopted communism by which to live. This communism "included all property of family living and associations." At this time there were approximately thirty-seven members that were involved. They lived in three houses, maintained a store, and worshiped together in a small chapel. They also ran two farms at this time, and because of the death of Noyes' father who left $20,000 each to four members who were in the community, they were able to support themselves.

Two years later, in 1846, the community adopted Noyes' teachings of "Mutual Criticism," "Complex Marriage" and "Male Continence". At this time in the groups history, these practices were only practiced on a small scale among leadership, and not until 1848 in Oneida, New York, would these be practiced by the whole community. Because of these practices, the community came under much persecution, even to the point where Noyes was indicted for adultery. Noyes, not wanting to become a useless martyr, and who by this time was viewed by the group as the Moses of the new dispensation who was going to lead them to the promised land, quickly purchased twenty-three acres of land that contained some buildings in Oneida, New York.

Their "Promised Land" was near the Canadian border which would be very convenient in case of future persecution. Then in 1847, the Putney group agreed "that the Kingdom of God had come." . The community could believe this because of two of Noyes' teachings: one being that Christ's second coming took place in A.D. 70, and the other being that they could bring in the millennial kingdom themselves. Forty-five of his followers from Putney followed Noyes to Oneida and by the end of 1848, their membership grew to eighty-seven.

The economic base of the Oneida Community was agricultural and industrial. They had approximately forty acres of partially cleared land on which to farm and an Indian sawmill in which to produce lumber. Over the next year, the community purchased and cultivated additional land, established a variety of minor craft industries, built a communal dwelling house [now a museum, pictured above], appointed administrative committees and set up a pattern of daily living which the community followed for the next thirty years.

 ___________________________

The community believed that Jesus had already returned in AD 70, making it possible for them to bring about Jesus’s millennial kingdom themselves, and be free of sin and perfect in this world, not just Heaven (a belief called Perfectionism). The Oneida Community practiced Communalism (in the sense of communal property and possessions), Complex Marriage, Male Continence, Mutual Criticism and Ascending Fellowship. There were smaller Noyesian communities in Wallingford, Connecticut; Newark, New Jersey; Putney and Cambridge, Vermont. The community’s original 87 members grew to 172 by February 1850, 208 by 1852, and 306 by 1878. The branches were closed in 1854 except for the Wallingford branch, which operated until devastated by a tornado in 1878. The Oneida Community dissolved in 1881, and eventually became the giant silverware company Oneida Limited.

Even though the community reached a maximum population of about 300, it had a complex bureaucracy of 27 standing committees and 48 administrative sections.

The manufacturing of silverware, the sole remaining industry, began in 1877, relatively late in the life of the Community, and still exists. Secondary industries included the manufacture of leather travel bags, the weaving of palm frond hats, the construction of rustic garden furniture, game traps, and tourism.



All Community members were expected to work, each according to his or her abilities. Women tended to do much of the domestic duties. Although more skilled jobs tended to remain with an individual member (the financial manager, for example, held his post throughout the life of the Community), Community members rotated through the more unskilled jobs, working in the house, the fields, or the various industries. As Oneida thrived, it began to hire outsiders to work in these positions as well. They were a major employer in the area, with approximately 200 employees by 1870.
_________________________


In order to understand the many changes to the structures and grounds and the many uses to which they have been employed, it is useful to divide the 150 years into three distinct "phases", each with its own "family".
Phase I is the Oneida Community Period, 1848-1880, under the leadership of John Humphrey Noyes. The "family" is the group of Christian Perfectionists living together communally. This is the time during which all extant structures were planned and built, with the exception of the "Lounge" (1914).

Phase II is the Oneida Limited Period, 1881-1987, under the early leadership of, most significantly, Pierrepont Burt Noyes. The "family" is largely descendants of the original Oneida Community members until the 1970's when more friends of family and employees of the Oneida Limited Silversmiths and local schools are resident in the Mansion House. Owner and manager is Oneida Limited. This is the period of most significant changes to the interior of all the structures as private apartments were created for families. It is also the time of most change to the landscape in and around the Mansion House.

Phase III is the Oneida Community Mansion House, (OCMH 1987 - present). The "family" is a group of resident descendants and non-descendants, many short-term guests visiting for meetings, conferences, social events and daily patrons of the museum. Use of the Mansion House as a residence continues while the museum and historic site functions have become most prominent. Owner and manager is a not-for-profit museum with a for-profit subsidiary.



Continued in the next post..... part five.



http://www.nyhistory.com/central/oneida.htm
http://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/religious/the-oneida-community-1848-1880-a-utopian-community/



Part THREE - the Oneida Community Series - The Founder: John Humphrey Hoyes.

This is part 3 of the Oneida Community Series
Here are excerpts from two sources available in whole and online, sourced below.




The founder of the Oneida Community was John Humphrey Noyes. He was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, in 1811. John Humphrey came from a well established home where his father, also named John, was a congressman and Dartmouth graduate. His mother Polly was sixteen years younger than his father and was a very strong- willed and deeply religious woman. She always taught her children "to fear the Lord." She even prayed before John Humphrey's birth that someday he might become a devoted minister of the gospel. Up until John Humphery's conversion, he was known as a rebel who had little interest in theology or in his studies. He entered Dartmouth in 1826, the year that revival had hit its peak under Charles Finney. But to no avail, John was not affected by it and looked at religion with great cynicism.

Five years later though, at the request of his mother, John attended a four-day revival meeting in Putney, Vermont, again under the ministry of Charles Finney. At first he was not moved by what he heard, "but after the meeting he suffered a feverish cold which led him to think of death, and to humble himself before God." He vigorously embraced the faith and the expectation of the beginning of the Millennial Kingdom. Later he studied at Andover and Yale Divinity School with a vision of going into the ministry.

While at Yale, Noyes came to a new understanding of the way of salvation which he labeled as Perfectionism. This view did not hold to total depravity as did the Calvinists' view, but it saw man as reaching a state of perfection or sinlessness at conversion. When Noyes asserted this doctrine of complete release from sin at conversion while studying at Yale Divinity School, he was denied ordination. It is said that one of the reasons that Noyes adopted this doctrine was the fact that he could not believe that he was a sinner, since he could not summon up from within any feeling of deep guilt and despair. For whatever reason he adopted this doctrine, it was the underlying foundation of his future endeavors.

 _____________________



The Oneida Community fits the classic model of a group of like-minded individuals following a charismatic individual. John Humphrey Noyes was unmistakably a charismatic and enigmatic figure who led a group of religious converts through a thirty-two year experiment designed to create a 'heaven on earth' where men, women, and children would live in harmony; separate, but not severed from the world. Ultimately, their goal was to serve as a successful model to the rest of the world. The importance of their religious convictions as believers in the "Primitive Church", is evident in all that they professed to be about, both in theory and in practice.

Their "experiment" as a formally organized society spanned a period of thirty-two years where three hundred individuals lived communally in unselfish devotion to the group and loyalty to their leader. Even after the dissolve of all community institutions in 1880, their economic successes carried them well into the 20th Century as the Oneida name continues to draw recognition as a world player in the production of fine silver and stainless tableware.

The beginning of the story for the Oneida Communitarians was not exceptional. In light of the classic model of the charismatic leader with a vision who attracts and organizes like-minded individuals, John Humphrey Noyes was not particularly unusual for his time.

Noyes was born in 1811 at Brattleboro, Vermont. He was graduated from Dartmouth College in 1830, studied law for a year in the law offices of his brother-in-law, Larkin G. Meade, in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, and returned to Vermont in 1831. At that time, minor revivalists who had been inspired by the famous evangelist, Charles Finney of New York, were setting up meetings in areas around New England as well. John Humphrey attended such a meeting, experienced a profound conversion and determined to devote the rest of his life to the service and ministry of God.

In 1831, at age 20, he entered Andover Theological Seminary. He spent a brief time at Andover, but transferred to Yale Theological School where he received his license to preach in 1833.

He there made a great discovery that the religious teachings were all wrong. He became convinced that Christ did not sanction a life of alternate sinning and repentance, but instead provided for the possibility of personal perfection here on earth.

For the next 15 years, Noyes traveled the country preaching "Perfectionism" and editing "militant" religious magazines and newspapers devoted to this new doctrine. In 1839, John Humphrey organized a 'Bible class" of friends and family. The group evolved to become the "Putney Community" in 1846. It was among this group of 30 trusted and loyal friends and family that Noyes formulated his plan for communal living. However, objections to the radical religious group grew in Putney within the next two years and by 1847, the Putney Perfectionists were forced to seek another location.

The doctrine of Perfectionism had become quite well known by 1845 and had won over a substantial number of worthy and influential church members in New England, New York, and New Jersey. Small groups of believers were scattered throughout these areas. One such band was gathering at Oneida Creek, New York and they invited the Putney exiles to join them.

By 1849, several families from NY, northern Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut had joined the new "Oneida Community" for a total of 87 members. Unlike the millenarians and certain communal groups such as the Shakers and Mormons, the Oneida Perfectionists did not consider it their business "�to proselyte mankind by superficial efforts, but to present a working model of Communism, and leave its effect on others to the silent action of truth and the Providence of God."

John Humphrey Noyes' views about Perfectionism and his ideas concerning the integration of religious theory and practice were becoming well known through his prolific writings on the subject. The Perfectionists' most fundamental belief related to the Second Coming of Christ and it was on this point that they differed most from the conventional orthodox views. They believed, simply, that this event was predicted to take place and did then take place during the time of the generation of Christ's disciples. By extension, selflessness, sinlessness, and perfection of society was a possible, attainable goal for life on earth. To all those who accepted these premises, the promise of salvation was a group endeavor, best attained through communal organization.







Sources:
http://www.nyhistory.com/central/oneida.htm
https://library.syr.edu/digital/guides/o/OneidaCommunityCollection/hsr1.htm

PART TWO - Doctrines of the Oneida Community - one of the many 'cult' like utopian communities that srung up in the early to mid 1800's

This is part two in the series devoted to skimming the surface of a very interesting bit of history; the Oneida Community.  For part one click here.

In 1834, John Humphrey Noyes started developing the theories that would later become the foundation of truth in the Oneida Community. Over the next three years, John canvassed New York state and New England trying to make new converts with no avail. Finally, after a tough three-week period in New York City, he reached the verge of a complete mental and emotional breakdown. To top things off, his first and most faithful follower, Abigail Merwin, left him to marry another man.

Shortly after these events, Noyes started writing articles which were published in a new periodical called the "Battle- Axe". His first article was on the denunciation of the institution of marriage. Also, in September of this year (1837), part of a letter written by Noyes to a friend was anonymously published by the editor in the Battle-Axe. This letter stated that Noyes felt from his interpretation of a biblical prophecy, that he was clearly convinced he was God's agent on earth. This article did not bring as much outrage by the people as did a later article that outlined his beliefs on sexual relationships in the spiritual world and that would prevail in the millennial kingdom (Whitworth 95).

Through the writing of these articles, a woman by the name of Harriet Holton, the granddaughter of the Lieutenant-Governor of the state, became interested in Noyes and his work. She started to financially support him, and later, after Noyes realized that he would never get Abigail Merwin back, slowly came to the point where he realized that Harriet was filling the void that Abigail had left. In June of 1838, Noyes wrote Harriet a letter in which he proposed in a very careful way. He explained to her that their marriage would be a spiritual one, even though for that time period it would be a carnal or earthly marriage. But, he felt that the marriage would benefit both of them and that they, according to his teachings, would not selfishly possess one another.

"Ascending Fellowship was set up to properly introduce the 
virgins into Complex Marriage. This practice also 
worked to prevent the young members from falling in love 
with each other and from limiting their range of affection 
to just the younger members"

One of his main reasons for getting married was that he felt the marriage would advance the work of God in which he was engaged. Also, it showed others who were criticizing him of his celibate state that he was not for celibacy, as were the Shakers. Noyes also said that, "By this marriage, besides herself, and a good social position, which she held as belonging to the first families of Vermont, I obtained money enough to buy a house and printing-office, and to buy a press and type." The press was then used to propagate Noyes' teachings through a publication called "The Witness," which he had to discontinue due to a lack of funds. So this marriage seems to have been based mainly on convenience.

After his marriage, Noyes then helped to arrange the marriages of his sisters to two of his closest followers, John L. Skinner and John R. Miller, who were students from his Bible institute which he had started in 1836 in Putney. He also gained the loyalty of his younger brother George and later, due to much pressure, his own mother who had been previously very upset by the way in which he had been using up the family estate to finance his religious endeavors. So at this point, John and George Noyes, Skinner, Miller, and a later addition of George Cragin became the center of an informal governing group of the movement.

Finally, in 1840, "the Putney Association came into being - as a purely religious body.". Then, in 1844, the group formally adopted communism by which to live. This communism "included all property of family living and associations." At this time there were approximately thirty-seven members that were involved. They lived in three houses, maintained a store, and worshiped together in a small chapel. They also ran two farms at this time, and because of the death of Noyes' father who left $20,000 each to four members who were in the community, they were able to support themselves.

Two years later, in 1846, the community adopted Noyes' teachings of "Mutual Criticism," "Complex Marriage" and "Male Continence". At this time in the groups history, these practices were only practiced on a small scale among leadership, and not until 1848 in Oneida, New York, would these be practiced by the whole community. Because of these practices, the community came under much persecution, even to the point where Noyes was indicted for adultery. Noyes, not wanting to become a useless martyr, and who by this time was viewed by the group as the Moses of the new dispensation who was going to lead them to the promised land, quickly purchased twenty-three acres of land that contained some buildings in Oneida, New York.

Oneida Community Mansion HouseTheir "Promised Land" was near the Canadian border which would be very convenient in case of future persecution. Then in 1847, the Putney group agreed "that the Kingdom of God had come." . The community could believe this because of two of Noyes' teachings: one being that Christ's second coming took place in A.D. 70, and the other being that they could bring in the millennial kingdom themselves. Forty-five of his followers from Putney followed Noyes to Oneida and by the end of 1848, their membership grew to eighty-seven.

The economic base of the Oneida Community was agricultural and industrial. They had approximately forty acres of partially cleared land on which to farm and an Indian sawmill in which to produce lumber. Over the next year, the community purchased and cultivated additional land, established a variety of minor craft industries, built a communal dwelling house [now a museum, pictured above], appointed administrative committees and set up a pattern of daily living which the community followed for the next thirty years.

PUCK Lampoons the CriticsAs stated earlier, Noyes' teachings were practiced here by the community. The main teaching which received the most criticism was that of "Complex Marriage." In Complex Marriage, every man was married to every woman and vice versa. This practice was to stay only within the community and had to stay within two main guidelines. The first was that before the man and woman could cohabit, they had to obtain each other's consent through a third person or persons. Secondly, no two people could have exclusive attachment with each other because it would be selfish and idolatrous. Any two people found in any such situation would be separated and not allowed to see each other for a certain length of time.


Another teaching practiced at the Oneida Community was that of "Male Continence," which was a type of birth control. In the practice of Male Continence, "a couple would engage in sexual congress without the man ever ejaculating, either during intercourse or after withdrawal." Noyes justified this practice because his wife Harriet in the first six years of their marriage had five difficult childbirths, four of which were premature and resulted in the deaths of the children. Noyes came to the conclusion that where an unwanted pregnancy occurred, there was a waste of the man's seed and that it was no different in practice to masturbation. With the implementation of Male Continence, which lasted from 1848 to 1868, some forty children were born in the community of about two hundred and fifty people.

Another teaching practiced along these same lines was that of "Ascending Fellowship." Ascending Fellowship was set up to properly introduce the virgins into Complex Marriage. This practice also worked to prevent the young members from falling in love with each other and from limiting their range of affection to just the younger members. The main people picked to care for the virgins were people who were considered to be closer to God. These people were of course older and had a special title which was that of Central Member. These Central Members were allowed their pick of a partner over which they would have the responsibility of spiritual guidance. It usually worked that the male Central Member would pick any female virgin of his choice. Due to her lower order, she was compelled to accept. In the case of the female Central Member, they were usually past the age of menopause, and when they chose their male virgin, they were obligated to honor the request. The reason women past menopause were chosen was so that as they taught the younger men Male Continence, they would not have to worry about unwanted pregnancies.

The forth major teaching practiced was that of "Mutual Criticism." Mutual Criticism was established to assure the integrity of the community by conformity to Noyes' morality. The way in which Mutual Criticism worked was that a member, under communal control, was subjected to criticisms of either a committee or the whole community. The criticisms were usually directed toward the "member's bad traits (those thoughts or acts that detracted from family unity), and an individual could be put through a shameful, humiliating experience." Only Noyes himself would not go through this unless he decided to, because he felt that a group should not criticize their leader.

Women's Clothing at Oneida In the area of government of the Oneida Community there were "twenty-one standing committees and forty-eight administrative departments. This organization covered every conceivable activity and interest from hair-cutting and dentistry to education and silk- manufacture." The Oneida Community had no definite rules restricting a member's time of rising in the morning for work, but they had very few problems with people taking advantage of it. Also at Oneida, the women had equality with the men and served on these committees and shared in all activities.

In 1849, a small branch community started at Brooklyn, and others followed" at Wallingford, Newark, Putney, Cambridge, and Manlius. But in 1855, some of these communities were abandoned so that a concentration of members would take place at Oneida and Wallingford." By this time, "relative tranquility had been achieved and almost all the theories and practices that would make Oneida one of the most distinctive of all American ventures in religious and social reorganization had been at least provisionally established."

The Oneida Community never did become very large. In January of 1849 the community had 87 members; 172 members by February of 1850, and by February of 1851 the number rose to approximately 205 members. The records show that in 1875 there were 298 members, and by 1878, the beginning year of the breakup, there were 306 members. From the original 87 members at Oneida in 1849, the totals from that year on were group totals from all of the communities combined.

Over the years from 1849 to 1879, "the community remained true to its original ideals." Problems started to occur in 1876 when Noyes tried to hand over leadership to his son, Dr. Theodore Noyes, who was an agnostic. Not only was the fact that he was an agnostic bad enough, but he ran the community with a tight fist which was resented by the people. It got so bad that John Humphrey Noyes himself had to come back from Wallingford where he was living to put things back in order. By then it was too late, factions within the community had already formed, some even with the opposition on the outside. And then in 1879, due to the opposition and hostility from the surrounding communities, Noyes, who had already withdrawn from active leadership, felt compelled to abandon the system of Complex Marriage. Even though Noyes wanted to keep the community together after this, some living married and others celibate (not preferred), problems occurred.

Many of the members quickly got married, but since Complex Marriage was such an integrated part of their lives, the community could not settle down to their normal style of living. In 1880, a committee was appointed "to consider the advisability of re-organizing upon a joint-stock basis." In January of 1881 the joint-stock company, called the "Oneida Community, Limited," was set up and the Oneida Community was abandoned.

Noyes did not see the necessity of observing the Sabbath (Whitworth 104). They did have a Sunday chapel meeting in which outsiders were allowed in. After work in the evening they would sing and pray and be taught such languages as Hebrew, Greek and Latin. Not much else is written on the topic.

Doctrines

(1) COMPLEX MARRIAGE - This is where every man and every woman is married to each other. They could engage in sexual intercourse, but could not be attached to each other as stated earlier.

(2) MALE CONTINENCE - This was a form of birth control where during and after sexual intercourse the man could not ejaculate.

(3) ASCENDING FELLOWSHIP - This is where the young virgins in the community were brought into the practice of Complex Marriage. The older godly members who were in a special group and were called Central Members would pick a virgin to be spiritually responsible for. This took place when the young people were about fourteen years old.

(4) MUTUAL CRITICISM - In Mutual Criticism, each member of the community that was being reprimanded was taken in front of either a committee or sometimes the whole community to be criticized for their action.

(5) CONFESSION - The members of the community, according to Noyes, were sinless after conversion, so no confession would be needed.

(6) REGENERATION - That Christ's death was not for the sins of man, but was the first blow to Satan. But that by believing in the death of Christ, one was released from sin, because Christ destroyed the central cause of sin. By believing then, one is regenerated (Whitworth 101-102).

(7) SEPARATION - The members did separate into a community, but their main separation was to be a sexual one.

(8) REVELATION - Noyes never said that he received special revelation, though he did have some twisted interpretations. Noyes once wrote an article in "The Berean" and emphasized the credibility of scripture and denounced those who denied the validity and relevance of scripture.

(9) EQUALITY OF THE SEXES - The Oneida Community believed in equality of the sexes as stated earlier.

(10) MILLENNIAL KINGDOM - That the Millennial Kingdom had been introduced in A.D. 70 at which time Noyes thought Christ had made His Second Coming (Hudson 186).









http://www.nyhistory.com/central/oneida.htm

List of Obama’s Constitutional Violations with the section of the law broken, noted


Thank You Mr. McClellan for this list.
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/list-obamas-constitutionalviolations-tim-mcclellan

List of Obama’s Constitutional Violations

Obama took the Presidential Oath, swearing to “…preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States” but has:

Used Executive Action in direct opposition to the law, and unilaterally changes the law for at least five million illegal aliens; Article 1 Section 1, ALL Legislative power held by Congress; “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” Article II Section 3;  Article I Section 8
  • Ignoring Federal law requiring that each state be notified when/where refuges are being placed in their state.  Article II Section 3
  • In direct violation of ACA Law ( Section 36B ) ordered subsidies be paid under Federal Exchange.  Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3.
  • Ignored law by taking Iran Deal to UN prior to 60-day review period mandated by Iran Nuclear Agreement Review, and failed to turn over side agreements as outlined.  – “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” Article II Section 3
  • Ignored Congressional Treaty Powers. Article II Section 1, Article II Section 2
  • Operation Choke Point program – Direct infringement on 2nd Amendment.
  • Violated statute on “Material Support of Terrorism” by returning top terrorists back to terrorist organizations. Article II Section 3; Dereliction of Duty Article II Section 4
  • Violated Appropriations Act (DOD Section 8111) – GAO report; Article II Section 3
  • Ignored law that requires Congress be notified prior to any detainees being moved from Guantanamo. “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” Article II Section 3
  • Using EPA to “legislate” over States, Congress,  and Federal Court; Article II Section 3;  Article I Section 8; Direct violation of Presidential Oath.
  • Appointed 24+ Federal agency czars without advice and consent of the Senate; Violation of Article II Section 2
  • Used Executive Privilege in regards to Fast & Furious gun running scandal. When Government misconduct is the concern Executive privilege is negated.
  • 23 Executive Orders on gun control – infringement of the 2nd Amendment
  • Exposed identity and methods of operation of a Navy SEALs team – Illegal for a President to reveal classified military secrets. Article II Section 3
  • 2 Executive actions mandating private health information on patients be turned over to NICS – Violation of HIPPA law.
  • Executive Order bypassing Congress on immigration – Article 1 Section 1, ALL Legislative power held by Congress; Article II Section 3;  Article I Section 8
  • Unilaterally issued new exemptions to immigration restrictions law that bars certain asylum-seekers and refugees who provided “limited material support” to terrorists. – Article 1 Section 1; Article I Section 8  Congress shall have the Power..to establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization.
  • Issued directive instructing ICE to NOT enforce immigration laws in certain cases. Article 1 Section 1, ALL Legislative power held by Congress; “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” Article II Section 3;  Article I Section 8
  • Release of convicted illegal aliens ordered in direct opposition to law-Article II Section 3
  • Expanded executive action for amnesty to illegal immigrant relatives of DREAM Act beneficiaries. Article 1 Section 1, ALL Legislative power held by Congress; “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” Article II Section 3;  Article I Section 8
  • Executive action directing DHS that almost all immigration offenses were unenforceable absent a separate criminal conviction. Article 1 Section 1, ALL Legislative power held by Congress; “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” Article II Section 3;  Article I Section 8
  • Ignoring Law (2006 Secure Fence Act) “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” Article II Section 3
  • Used DOJ to ignore section 8 of the Voting Rights Act. ” he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” Article II Section 3
  • Used DOJ to prevent Arizona and Alabama from enforcing immigration laws. – 10th Amendment
  • Information memorandum telling states that they can waive the work requirement for welfare recipients, thereby altering the 1996 welfare reform law. – Article 1 Section 1, ALL Legislative power held by Congress.
  • Used NLRB to dictate to a business where they can do business. (Boeing Dreamliner Plant). No Constitutional authority to do so.
  • NDAA – Section 1021. Due process Rights negated.  Violation of 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th Amendments.
  • Executive Order 13603 NDRP – Government can seize anything
  • Executive Order 13524 – Gives INTERPOL jurisdiction on American soil beyond law enforcement agencies, including the FBI.
  • Executive Order 13636 Infrastructure Cybersecurity – Bypassing Congress Article 1 Section 1, ALL Legislative power held by Congress
  • Attempt to tax political contributions – 1st Amendment
  • DOMA Law – Obama directed DOJ to ignore the Constitution and separation of powers and not enforce the law. ” he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” Article II Section 3
  • Dodd-Frank – Due process and separation of powers. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau writing and interpreting law. Article. I. Section. 1
  • Drone strikes on American Citizens – 5th Amendment Due process Rights negated
  • Bypassed Congress and gave EPA power to advance Cap-n-Trade
  • Attempt for Graphic tobacco warnings (under appeal) – 1st Amendment
  • Four Exec. appointments – Senate was NOT in recess (Court has ruled unconstitutional yet the appointees still remain)
  • Obama took Chairmanship of UN Security Council – Violation of Section 9.
  • ACA (Obamacare) mandate – SCOTUS rewrote legislation and made it a tax because there is no Constitutional authority for Congress to force Americans to engage in commerce. SCOTUS has no authority to Legislate or lay taxes. Article I Section 1 & 8.
  • Contraceptive, abortifacients mandate violation of First Ammendment
  • Healthcare waivers – No president has dispensing powers
  • Refuses to acknowledge state’s 10th Amendment rights to nullify Obamacare
  • Going after states (AZ lawsuit) for upholding Federal law (immigration) -10th Amendment.
  • Chrysler Bailout -TARP – violated creditors rights and bankruptcy law, as well as Takings and Due Process Clauses – 5th Amendment (G.W. Bush also illegally used TARP funds for bailouts)
  • The Independent Payment Advisory Board (appointees by the president). Any decisions by IPAB will instantly become law starting in 2014 – Separation of Powers, Article 1 Section 1.
  • Congress did not approve Obama’s war in Libya. Article I, Section 8, First illegal war U.S. has engaged in. Impeachable under Article II, Section 4; War Powers Act – Article II Section 3.
  • Obama falsely claims UN can usurp Congressional war powers.
  • Obama has acted outside the constitutional power given him – this in itself is unconstitutional.
  • Bribery of Senator Ben Nelson  and Senator Mary Landrey. (Cornhusker Kickback and Louisiana Purchase) Article II, Section 4.
  • With the approvalof Obama, the NSA and the FBI are tapping directly into the servers of 9 internet companies to gain access to emails, video/audio, photos, documents, etc. This program is code named PRISM. NSA also collecting data on all phone calls in U.S. – Violation of 4th Amendment.
  • Directed signing of U.N. Firearms treaty – 2nd Amendment.
  • The Senate/Obama immigration bill (approved by both) raises revenue – Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives
  • Obama altered law – (A president has no authority to alter law) Delayed upholding the Employer Mandate Law (ACA) until 2015 – Individual Mandate will be enforced. A President does not have that authority – Article. I. Section. 1. All legislative Powersherein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States; The president “shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed” -Article II, Section 3;  Equal Protection Clause -14th Amendment.
  • Obama altered law – ACA Medicare cuts delayed until 2015. Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3.
  • Obama altered law – Enforcement of eligibility requirements for ACA delayed until 2015. Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3.
  • Obama wavered ACA Income Verification Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3.
  • Obama altered law – Delayed ACA caps on out of pocket expenses until 2015. (when implemented premiums will skyrocket) Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3.
  • Obama ignored judicial order to fulfill legal obligation regarding Yucca Mountain waste. Article II, Section 3
  • Waived Federal provision that prevents U.S. From arming terrorist groups – Article I. Section 1; Impeachable under Article III, Section 3.
  • Directed State Department HS to ignore law barring entry to U.S. those giving political or charitable aid to known terrorist groups. Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3.
  • Obama shelves part of the ACA Law for Insurers, extending the life of non-qualifying (according to ACA) plans until Jan. 1, 2015. Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3. Violation of the Take Care Clause, Separation of Powers.
  • Obama waved ACA individual mandate for those that lost their insurance. Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3. Violation of the Take Care Clause, Separation of Powers.
  • Obama alters ACA law and exempts companies employing between 50-100 full-time workers from business mandate until 2016. Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3.
  • In total, Obama has unilaterally altered ACA 24 times.  Article. I. Section. 1; Article II, Section 3. Violation of the Take Care Clause, Separation of Powers.
A Constitutional law professor (even their students) should know better.  The truth is Obama was not a Constitutional law professor: “under no circumstances would an offer to Obama be tenured.” “The thought that the law school could have made a tenure offer to a person with no academic writing was out of the question.” Former University of Chicago Law School Dean Richard Epstein.

Clearly Obama has not respected or protected the Constitution. Obama has broken his oath to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States. Article II, Section 1. 

Note: Executive Orders/Actions by the president were not designed for, nor do they give a president the authority to use as, a means to override or alter legislation or any other Constitutional violation.  Executive Orders cannot defy Congressional intent.


Top 10 Ways Obama Violated The Constitution During His Presidency

Top 10 Ways Obama Violated The Constitution During His Presidency

The Obama administration has been the most lawless in U.S. history. Here are just a few examples to prove it.

Thank You to the Federalist for this list!  http://thefederalist.com/2017/01/19/10-ways-obama-violated-constitution-presidency/

Let’s pause to note the 10 most significant ways in which Barack Obama violated the Constitution, in rough chronological order.

1. The Chrysler Bailout

Building on the Bush administration’s illegal use of TARP funds to bail out the auto industry, the Obama administration in 2009 bullied Chrysler’s secured creditors—who were entitled to “absolute priority”—into accepting 30 cents on the dollar, while junior creditors such as labor unions received much more. This subversion of creditor rights violates not just bankruptcy law, but also the Constitution’s Takings and Due Process Clauses.
This blatant crony capitalism—government-directed industrial policy to help political insiders—discourages investors and generally undermines confidence in American rule of law. The Supreme Court ultimately vacated the Second Circuit ruling that allowed this farce to proceed; Chrysler’s creditors are still out of luck, but there’s no legal precedent.

2. Obamacare Implementation

One can, and many have, written whole articles about how the Affordable Care Act is such an affront to the rule of law that its individual mandate and Medicaid coercion—both of which Chief Justice John Roberts rewrote—are just the tip of the lawless iceberg. On implementation, we can’t blame Congress or courts. Here’s a sample:
  • The Labor Department announced in February 2013 that it was delaying for a year the part of the law that limits how much people have to spend on their own insurance. This may have been sensible, but changing a law requires actual legislation.
  • Later that year, the administration announced via blogpost on the eve of the July 4 holiday that it was delaying the requirement that employers of at least 50 people provide complying insurance or pay a fine. This time it cited statutory authority, but the cited provisions allow the delay of reporting requirements, not the mandate itself.
  • The famous pledge that “if you like your plan, you can keep it” backfired when insurers started cancelling millions of plans that didn’t comply with Obamacare. So Obama called a press conference to proclaim that people could continue buying non-complying plans for another year—despite the ACA’s language to the contrary. He then refused to consider a House-passed bill that would’ve made this action legal.
  • A little-known part of Obamacare requires congressional staff to get insurance from health exchanges, rather than a taxpayer-funded program. Obama directed the Office of Personnel Management to interpret the law to maintain the generous benefits.
  • Obamacare grants tax credits to people whose employers don’t provide coverage if they buy a plan “through an Exchange established by the State”—and then fines employers for each employee receiving such a subsidy. No tax credits are authorized for residents of states where the exchanges are established by the federal government, as an incentive for states to create exchanges themselves. Because so few (16) states did, however, the IRS issued a rule allowing subsidies (and fines) for plans coming from “a State Exchange, regional Exchange, subsidiary Exchange, and federally-facilitated Exchange.” Yes, we can also blame the Supreme Court for upholding this.
  • The Department of Health and Human Services granted more than 2,000 waivers to employers seeking relief from Obamacare’s regulations. Nearly 20 percent of them went to gourmet restaurants and other businesses in former Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s San Francisco district. Nevada, home to former Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, got a blanket waiver, while GOP-controlled states like Indiana and Louisiana were denied. Beyond political favoritism, such dispensations violate a host of constitutional and administrative law provisions like equal protection and the “intelligible principle” needed for congressional delegation of authority to cabinet agencies.
  • HHS also continues paying insurance companies to compensate them for losses caused by Obamacare’s ignorance of basic economics. Alas, Congress never appropriated these funds, so the House of Representatives is suing the administration and won in the district court. Now on appeal, House v. Burwell is stayed until the D.C. Circuit hears from the incoming Trump administration. (Full disclosure: My wife joined the House general counsel’s office last month and is litigating the appeal.) 

3. Political Profiling by the IRS

After seeing a rise in the number of applications for tax-exempt status, the IRS in 2010 compiled a “be on the lookout” (“BOLO”) list to identify organizations engaged in political activities. The list included words such as “Tea Party,” “Patriots,” and “Israel”; subjects such as government spending, debt, or taxes; and activities such as criticizing the government, educating about the Constitution, or challenging Obamacare. The targeting continued through May 2013, with no consequences other than Lois Lerner, the chief of the exempt-organizations unit, being held in contempt of Congress—and then being allowed to peacefully retire despite erased records and other cover-ups. Okay, this one qualifies as Nixonian.

4. Recess Appointments

In January 2012, President Obama appointed three members of the National Labor Relations Board, as well as the head of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, during what he considered to be a Senate recess. But the Senate was still holding “pro forma” sessions every three days—a technique developed by Sen. Harry Reid to thwart Bush recess appointments. (Meanwhile, the Dodd-Frank Act, which created the CFPB, provides that authority remains with the Treasury Secretary until a director is “confirmed by the Senate.”) In 2014, Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the NLRB appointments were illegal, while last year the D.C. Circuit found the CFPB’s structure to be unconstitutional. 

5. DACA and DAPA

Congress has shamelessly failed to pass any sort of immigration reform, including for the most sympathetic victims of the current non-system, young people who were brought into the country illegally as children. Nonetheless, during his 2012 reelection campaign, President Obama directed the Department of Homeland Security to issue work and residence permits (Deferred Action to Childhood Arrivals) to the so-called Dreamers.
Then, after the 2014 midterms, the president decided that he had been wrong 22 times in saying he couldn’t give temporary legal status to illegal immigrants. The administration engineered this Deferred Action for Parents of Americans in the wake of Congress’s rejection of the same policies, in violation of the Administrative Procedure Act, immigration law, and the Constitution’s Take Care Clause. A district court enjoined DAPA in February 2015, which action the Fifth Circuit twice affirmed, as did the Supreme Court by a 4-4 vote.

6. Assault On Free Speech and Due Process On College Campuses

In 2013 the Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights, in conjunction with the Justice Department, sent the University of Montana a letter that became a national “blueprint” for tackling sexual harassment. The letter urged a crackdown on “unwelcome” speech and requires complaints to be heard in quasi-judicial procedures that deny legal representation, encourage punishment before trial, and convict based on a mere “more likely than not” standard.
As noted civil libertarian Harvey Silverglate explained this week, the administration construed Title IX—the federal law barring sex discrimination by federally funded schools—as a mandate to punish students and faculty accused of sexual misconduct using procedures that make it extraordinarily difficult for innocent people to defend themselves.

7. The Clean Power Plan

In June 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency proposed a new rule for regulating power-plant emissions. Despite significant criticism, it finalized the rule in August 2015, giving states until 2018 to develop plans to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, with mandatory compliance beginning in 2022.
The EPA cites Section 111 of the Clean Air Act as justification for this Clean Power Plan, but that section can’t give the agency such authority. Section 111 doesn’t permit the government to require states to regulate pollutants from existing sources when those pollutants are already being regulated under Section 112, like those deriving from coal-fired plants. The late Justice Scalia’s last public act was to join an order staying the rule pending further litigation (or, as is likely, a rescinding of the rule).

8. The WOTUS Rule

In May 2015, the EPA announced its new Clean Water Rule, which aims to protect streams and wetlands from pollution. The agency insists that the rule doesn’t affect bodies of water not previously regulated, but several groups have sued on the basis that the rule’s definitions of regulated waters greatly exceed the EPA’s authority under the Clean Water Act to regulate “waters of the United States” (WOTUS).
The Supreme Court has thrice addressed the meaning of that phrase, making clear that, for the EPA to have regulatory authority, a sufficient nexus must exist between the location regulated and “navigable waters.” The Clean Water Rule, however, purports to give EPA power far beyond waters that are “navigable” by any stretch of the word’s definition. Litigation is ongoing.

9. Net Neutrality

In the works throughout the Obama presidency, the Open Internet Rule was adopted in February 2015 and went into effect that June, forbidding internet-service providers (ISPs) from prioritizing different kinds of internet traffic.
The real issue, beyond this “net neutrality,” is the Federal Communications Commission’s manufacture of authority to regulate the internet despite clear congressional instruction that the internet remain unregulated. In 2014, courts struck down the FCC’s 2010 self-aggrandizement under the 1934 Communications Act and 1996 Telecommunications Act, so the agency doubled down by writing a new rule that equated the internet with telephony.
That creative interpretation allowed the FCC to claim the sweeping discretion it had used to manage the AT&T phone monopoly throughout the 20th century. Moreover, while the FCC touts the regulation as ensuring that the internet remains free of censorship, the rule impinges on the First Amendment rights of internet-service providers.

10. EPA’s Cap-And-Trade

In October 2015, the EPA issued a carbon-emissions cap-and-trade regulation, establishing for each state limits on carbon dioxide emission, with four interim steps on the way to the final goal. EPA says that this rule, too, is authorized by Section 111 of the Clean Air Act, but Congress considered and rejected such a cap-and-trade program in 2009. Far from being authorized by the Clean Air Act or lying in some zone of statutory ambiguity, this massive new regulatory scheme contradicts the express will of Congress.

That’s Only The Beginning....